The Earth is in the midst of a worldwide, drastic, man-made climate change and, at the same time, the sixth mass extinction in Earth’s history. While climate change is now perceived as a global crisis, the decline in biodiversity in recent decades, on the other hand, has received far less media and political attention. According to the latest studies, these two phenomena are even more closely linked than previously assumed. A joint approach to solving the problem is therefore essential. In this endeavour, spatial planning has, among other things, the task of balancing the various demands on the limited resource of space, taking into account the short- and long-term effects on the environment and society. The planned expansion of renewable energy systems in Austria is an essential step towards reducing CO2 emissions, but the sometimes ambivalent effects on nature and the environment must not be ignored. Photovoltaic systems promise the greatest potential for the expansion of renewable energy systems in most of Austria’s federal provinces. Therefore, the question arises whether and how biodiversity can avoid further damage by their expansion, and also be protected or increased regionally. In this context, not only the design and construction of the individual photovoltaic systems (especially in the case of ground-mounted photovoltaic systems) play a role, but also their arrangement and positioning in the landscape. The expansion of photovoltaic plants could be planned by spatial analyses taking into account the current use of land, the quality and connectivity of habitats as well as fertile agricultural soils among others. In addition to the generation of renewable energy, a biotope network could be created that has a positive effect on biodiversity. With this approach, the important and necessary expansion of renewable energy systems could not only help to minimise CO2 emissions, but also help to protect biodiversity and thus our livelihoods.